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Article Released Sun-24th-February-2008 22:06 GMT
Contact: Ruth Institution: Nature Publishing Group
 Neuroscience: Targeting psychosis

Summaries of newsworthy papers include Long-distance groundwater flow on Mars, Dust in the wind, Silicon lasers march towards the mid-infrared, Drug detective kit for the cell’s powerhouse, Towards a ‘cloak’ for magnetic fields, Pathway influences human hair growth and texture, Cows as genetic models and more

NATURE AND THE NATURE RESEARCH JOURNALS PRESS RELEASE

For papers that will be published online on 24 February 2008

This press release is copyrighted to the Nature journals mentioned below.

This press release contains:

· Summaries of newsworthy papers:

Neuroscience: Targeting psychosis – Nature
Finding the glacial floodpath – Nature Geoscience
Long-distance groundwater flow on Mars – Nature Geoscience
Dust in the wind – Nature Geoscience
Silicon lasers march towards the mid-infrared – Nature Photonics
Cleaning up a moldy hormone – Nature Chemical Biology
Drug detective kit for the cell’s powerhouse – Nature Biotechnology
Towards a ‘cloak’ for magnetic fields – Nature Materials
Multiferroics heat up - Nature Materials
Pathway influences human hair growth and texture – Nature Genetics
Multi-tasking sensor of immune ‘danger’ – Nature Immunology
Twist mediates hypoxia-driven tumour metastasis – Nature Cell Biology
Cows as genetic models – Nature Methods

· Mention of papers to be published at the same time with the same embargo

· Geographical listing of authors



PDFs of all the papers mentioned on this release can be found in the relevant journal’s section of http://press.nature.com. Press contacts for the Nature journals are listed at the end of this release.

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PLEASE CITE THE SPECIFIC NATURE JOURNAL AND WEBSITE AS THE SOURCE OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS. IF PUBLISHING ONLINE, PLEASE CARRY A HYPERLINK TO THE APPROPRIATE JOURNAL’S WEBSITE.

****************************************************NATURE************************************************
(http://www.nature.com/nature)

[1] Neuroscience: Targeting psychosis

A pair of receptors in the brain that react to hallucinogenic drugs are identified as a potential target for the treatment of psychosis, in a paper published online in Nature this week. The serotonin and glutamate receptors form a complex in the brain that triggers responses to drugs such as LSD and psilocybin.

Some antipsychotic drugs target the serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (2AR), and some hallucinogenic drugs act on the same receptors. Stuart Sealfon and colleagues show that the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2, a drug target for schizophrenia, interacts with 2AR to form a functional complex in the brain that is activated by hallucinogenic drugs. Activating mGluR2 blocks the effects of the hallucinogenic drugs in mice, and the normal balance of these receptors is disrupted in the brains of schizophrenic patients. The researchers believe that the complex may be a promising new target for treating psychosis.

Author contact:

Stuart Sealfon (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA)
Tel: +1 212 241 7075; E-mail: Stuart.Sealfon@mssm.edu

Other papers from Nature to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[2] Preserving cell shape under environmental stress
DOI: 10.1038/nature06603

****************************************NATURE GEOSCIENCE******************************************
(http://www.nature.com/ngeo)

[3] Finding the glacial floodpath
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo130

The massive outburst flood implicated in a global cooling event 8,200 years ago made its way into the North Atlantic Ocean underneath the ice sheet covering North America, rather than above or through it, suggests a study online in Nature Geoscience this week.

Patrick Lajeunesse and Guillaume St-Onge used sonar scans to map the distribution and orientation of various flood-induced features on the Hudson Bay seafloor. These include arc-shaped scour marks, which were probably caused by movement of icebergs on the seafloor, and sandwaves caused by high-velocity flow of floodwater over the seafloor. They suggest that the orientations of these features and their relative distribution can be best explained by a scenario involving subglacial flow of floodwater.

The flood waters were released from the glacial lake Agassiz-Ojibway — located in present-day Canada — and flowed into the North Atlantic, temporarily affecting the ocean circulation.

Author contacts:

Patrick Lajeunesse (Université Laval, Quebec, Canada)
Tel: +1 418 656 2131(ext. 5870); E-mail: patrick.lajeunesse@ggr.ulaval.ca

Guillaume St-Onge (Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Quebec, Canada)
Tel: +1 418 723 1986 (ext.1741); E-mail: guillaume_st-onge@uqar.qc.ca

[4] Long-distance groundwater flow on Mars
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo131

Long, narrow ridges in the Valles Marineris region of Mars originate from cementation of fault zones by minerals deposited during ancient groundwater flow. The Valles Marineris, with a length of over 4,000 kilometres and width of almost 200 kilometres, is the largest known system of canyons in the solar system and easily dwarfs the Grand Canyon of Colorado. A report online this week in Nature Geoscience suggests that at the time the fault zones formed 3500–1800 million years ago, groundwater must have flowed close to Mars’ surface, and the deposition of minerals by groundwater must have been a regionally significant process.

Allan Treiman studied images of the Valles Marineris region and mapped the distribution of the ridges. He found that some of the ridges, which extend for several tens of kilometres, are intimately associated with faults and fault zones. Some of the ridges are parallel to each other while others show a criss-crossing pattern, and in places, the ridges appear as wall-like features that can be several kilometres high.

Author contact:
Allan Treiman (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, USA)
Tel: +1 281 486 2117; E-mail: treiman@lpi.usra.edu

[5] Dust in the wind
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo133

Changes in human settlement and livestock grazing in the western United States over the last 200 years have resulted in a 500% increase in the amount of dust in the atmosphere, according to a study published online this week in Nature Geoscience. The increased dust deposition has resulted in a more than fivefold increase in nutrient and mineral input to a lake in the San Juan Mountains, with important implications for alpine lake chemistry and ecology.

Jason Neff and colleagues used lake sediments to estimate the amount of dust blown into the lake over the last 5,000 years. They found a dramatic rise in the number of dust particles in the sediments that coincides with the westward expansion of human settlements in the nineteenth century. Twentieth century increases in livestock patterns also brought about dustier conditions relative to the baseline measurements.

Author contact:
Jason Neff (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA)
Tel: +1 303 492 6187; E-mail: neffjc@colorado.edu

Other papers from Nature Geoscience to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[6] Boudinage of a stretching slablet implicated in earthquakes beneath the Hindu Kush
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo132

******************************************NATURE PHOTONICS******************************************
(http://www.nature.com/nphoton)

[7] Silicon lasers march towards the mid-infrared
DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.4

The feasibility of extending the wavelength of operation of silicon lasers from the near- to the mid-infrared is given a boost, in a paper published online this week in Nature Photonics.

Cheap and powerful semiconductor lasers that operate in the mid-infrared (2 microns to 5 microns) region are highly sought for applications such as medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring, but do not exist at present.

Haisheng Rong and colleagues have demonstrated that silicon-chip-based lasers that exploit ‘cascaded Raman lasing’ may provide the answer. Although silicon Raman lasers have been made before, their wavelength of operation has always been limited to around 1.6 microns.

The team has successfully demonstrated that, by exploiting the Raman effect not once but twice within a silicon waveguide, it is possible to create a silicon-chip laser that emits milliwatt-scale powers at a wavelength of 1.848 microns. This is the longest wavelength reported so far for silicon Raman lasers and is tantalizingly close to the mid-infrared window. The research offers hope that by optimizing the design it should be possible to make lasers that operate at even longer wavelengths.

Author contact:
Haisheng Rong (Intel, Santa Clara, CA, USA)

Please contact author through:
Megan Langer (Intel, Hillsborough, OR USA) Media contact
Tel: +1 503 712 4305; E-mail: Megan.e.langer@intel.com

Other papers from Nature Photonics to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[8] Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging
DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.1

[9] A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser
DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2008.3

*************************************NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY ***********************************
(http://www.nature.com/nchembio)

[10] Cleaning up a mouldy hormone
DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.74

Scientists have identified the structure of an important hormone in mould, according to a paper to be published online this week in Nature Chemical Biology. This insight ends a 70-year search for the compound’s shape and opens the door for biological studies of and treatment for the destructive Phytophthora fungi.

Hormone alpha1 was previously identified as an important molecule that causes Phytophthora moulds to become oospores – a protective form that allows the mould to survive for a long time in adverse conditions. However, because the compound is difficult to isolate and has a complex structure that cannot be assigned by standard methods, it has not been possible to conclusively determine the structure.

In a collaborative effort, Arata Yajima, Yong Qin and colleagues have now determined two synthetic pathways to make the compound, and with the assistance of Jianhua Qi and colleagues, have also determined which of several structural possibilities is the true hormone. Knowing what this molecule looks like will help scientists trying to study the mould and may assist in finding drugs to combat these problematic microorganisms.

Author contacts:
Arata Yajima (Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan)
Tel: +81 3 5477 2622; E-mail: ayaji@nodai.ac.jp

Yong Qin (Sichuan University, Chengdu, China)
Tel: +86 28 8550 3842; E-mail: yongqin@scu.edu.cn

Jianhua Qi (Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan)
Tel: +81 52 789 5435; E-mail: jhqi@fudan.edu.cn

********************************************* NATURE MATERIALS ************************************** (http://www.nature.com/naturematerials)
[11] Towards a ‘cloak’ for magnetic fields
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2126

An artificial superconductor structure, also known as a metamaterial, that could be used to make devices capable of screening magnetic fields is reported online this week in Nature Materials. The devices could be used for applications such as protecting electronic circuits or sensitive diagnostic tools.

Metamaterials have already attracted considerable interest for their ability to guide light in ways impossible to achieve by conventional optical elements such as lenses. They have been used to demonstrate ‘cloaking’, where light of a particular wavelength is guided around an object to make it appear invisible.

Ben Wood and colleagues present a metamaterial structure, based on an array of superconducting elements that could be used to ‘cloak’ static magnetic fields, instead of light waves, by guiding them away from the inner region of the structure.

Author contact:
Ben Wood (Imperial College London, London, UK)
Tel: +44 20 7594 7542; E-mail: ben.wood@imperial.ac.uk

[12] Multiferroics heat up
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2125

Scientists have discovered a new class of materials that have a multiferroic state — that is stable at higher temperatures than previously known. The study, reported online this week in Nature Materials, could prove promising for the sensing of magnetic fields or future data storage applications

For such applications, those multiferroic materials that have a strong coupling between the magnetic and electric properties are of particular interest. However, so far these have mostly only worked at temperatures below 40 Kelvin. The discovery by Tsuyoshi Kimura and colleagues of a new class of these materials, based on cupric oxide (CuO), where the multiferroic state is stable up to 230 Kelvin, therefore represents a significant advance. In a way, this stability of CuO is reminiscent of high-temperature superconductors, for which CuO is an important building block. As Maxim Mostovoy points out in an accompanying News & Views article, this discovery opens a new hunting ground for high-temperature multiferroic materials based on copper oxides.

Author contact:
Tsuyoshi Kimura (Osaka University, Osaka, Japan)
Tel: +81 6 6850 6455; E-mail: kimura@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

Maxim Mostovoy (University of Groningen, The Netherlands) N&V author
Tel: +31 50 363 3419; E-mail: M.Mostovoy@rug.nl

Other papers from Nature Materials to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[13] Field-effect-modulated Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2120


[14] Gated proton transport in aligned mesoporous silica films
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2127

*******************************************NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY*********************************
(http://www.nature.com/naturebiotechnology)

[15] Drug detective kit for the cell’s powerhouse
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1387

A large-scale analysis of the effects of almost 2,500 drugs and natural products on mitochondria—the tiny structures that convert food to energy in every cell—promises to become invaluable to scientists seeking new ways to tackle diabetes, neurodegeneration and even ageing. The resource, described online this week in Nature Biotechnology, will help to illuminate the role mitochondria in health and the consequences of their failure in disease.

Vamsi Mootha and colleagues monitored the effects of the chemicals on physiological responses and gene expression in mitochondria from mouse muscle cells. The collection can be used to find clues predicting both new uses and undesirable side effects for approved drugs. For instance, its analysis corroborates the idea that defective mitochondria might be responsible for muscle cramps associated with taking statins—cholesterol-lowering drugs taken by nearly 100 million patients worldwide.

Another unanticipated insight involved a link between mitochondrial gene expression and the integrity of microtubules—scaffolds that also act as highways to shuttle key molecules around the cell. The healing properties of a natural product used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes may derive from its ability to disrupt microtubules.

Author contact:

Vamsi Mootha (Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA)
Tel: +1 617 643 3096; E-mail: vamsi@hms.harvard.edu

Additional contact for comment on paper:
Eric Schon (Columbia University, New York, NY, USA)
Tel:+1 212 305 1665; E-mail: eas3@columbia.edu

Other papers from Nature Biotechnology to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[16] Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in vivo by entry inhibitors derived from the large envelope protein
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1389

[17] Engineered lentivector targeting of dendritic cells for in vivo immunization
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1390

***********************************************NATURE GENETICS **************************************
(http://www.nature.com/naturegenetics)

[18] & [19] Pathway influences human hair growth and texture

DOI: 10.1038/ng.84
DOI: 10.1038/ng.100

Researchers have identified the genetic basis of two related but clinically distinct forms of inherited hair loss, according to two studies published online this week in Nature Genetics. This discovery has the potential to lead to new treatments for hair loss and excessive hair.

Regina Betz and colleagues studied families in Saudi Arabia with hypotrichosis simplex, which causes progressive hair loss beginning in early childhood. They identified mutations in P2RY5, a gene encoding a receptor protein, and then went on to identify the molecule that activates the receptor as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA has been shown to promote hair growth in an animal model. Angela Christiano and colleagues studied families in Pakistan with ‘woolly hair’, characterized by sparse, dry and tightly curled hair over the entire scalp region. They also identified mutations in P2RY5, and show that it is expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles, implying a role for it in anchoring and shaping the growing hair shaft.

Author contacts:
Regina Betz (University of Bonn, Germany) Author paper [18]
Tel: +49 228 2872 2344; E-mail: regina.betz@uni-bonn.de

Angela Christiano (Columbia University, New York, NY, USA) Author paper [19]
Tel: +1 212 305 9565; E-mail: amc65@columbia.edu

Other papers from Nature Genetics to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[20] Crossover assurance and crossover interference are distinctly regulated by the ZMM proteins during yeast meiosis
DOI: 10.1038/ng.83

[21] Mutations in the cyclin family member FAM58A cause an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by syndactyly, telecanthus and anogenital and renal malformations
DOI: 10.1038/ng.86

*******************************************NATURE IMMUNOLOGY ************************************
(http://www.nature.com/natureimmunology)

[22] Multi-tasking sensor of immune ‘danger’
DOI: 10.1038/ni1569

Data explaining how a single sensor of ‘danger’ manages to activate two distinct host immune defense signaling pathways is presented in a paper published online this week in Nature Immunology. TLR4, a detector of a bacterial component, triggers activation of a signaling pathway culminating in production of type I interferon – a protein that elicits a state of immune system ‘alert’ – and of a signaling cascade eliciting other pro-inflammatory signaling molecules. Unlike other type I interferon-inducing receptors, which reside inside immune cells, TLR4 sits on the surface of immune cells.

Ruslan Medzhitov and colleagues show that TRAM, a protein that binds the intracellular tail of TLR4, routes TLR4 from the cell surface to intracellular compartments. This TRAM-mediated trafficking allows TLR4 to ‘multi-task’ by sequentially activating two signaling pathways—first one from the cell surface and then a second from within the cell interior.

Author contact:
Ruslan Medzhitov (Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA)
Tel: +1 203 785 7541; E-mail: ruslan.medzhitov@yale.edu

Other papers from Nature Immunology to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[23] Association between the Igk and Igh immunoglobulin loci mediated by the 3' Igk enhancer induces ‘decontraction’ of the Igh locus in pre–B cells
DOI: 10.1038/ni1567

*******************************************NATURE CELL BIOLOGY ************************************
(http://www.nature.com/naturecellbiology)

[24] Twist mediates hypoxia-driven tumour metastasis
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1691

Poor oxygen levels inside tumours promotes their progression through direct activation of TWIST, a key protein involved in both embryonic development and metastasis. A study published online in Nature Cell Biology this week identifies a pathway that could be active in several types of cancer, and the importance of using certain protein inhibitors for tumour treatment.

Tumour growth is often accompanied by low levels of oxygen or hypoxia, which has been closely associated with resistance to treatment and the spread of disease from one area to another, known as metastasis. Hypoxic cells produce high levels of a protein known as HIF-1alpha, which controls the levels of several genes that are important in the cellular response to low oxygen. Kou-Juey Wu and colleagues have found that TWIST is regulated directly by this protein and that it mediates hypoxia-induced tumour progression and metastasis.

The team discovered that Increased cellular production of TWIST by HIF-1alpha was associated with enhanced migration and invasion of cancer cells. Intravenous injection of HIF-1alpha-producing cells into mice induced cell migration and the formation of tumours in the lungs; with both effects requiring TWIST. Analysis of samples from patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas revealed that the presence of HIF-1alpha and TWIST is associated with a faster onset of metastasis and poorer prognosis.



Author contact:
Kou-Juey Wu (National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan)
Tel: +886 2 2826 7328; E-mail: kjwu2@ym.edu.tw

Other papers from Nature Cell Biology to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[25] Inhibition of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization by PICK1 regulates neuronal morphology and AMPA receptor endocytosis
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1688

[26] Control of daughter centriole formation by the pericentriolar material
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1694

[27] MesP1 drives vertebrate cardiovascular differentiation through Dkk-1-mediated blockade of Wnt-signalling
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1696

[28] VHL loss actuates a HIF-independent senescence programme mediated by Rb and p400
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1699

********************************************NATURE METHODS******************************************
(http://www.nature.com/nmeth)

[29] Cows as genetic models
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1185

A cost-effective strategy to discover over 60,000 markers in the cattle genome is published online this week in Nature Methods. These markers will help scientists to examine the genetic diversity among different breeds, to discover new genes and to dissect the genetic underpinnings of complex diseases in cattle.

A comprehensive map of genome-wide genetic markers is the prerequisite of all these goals. Curtis Van Tassell and colleagues present a quick and cheap method to find and validate over 60,000 of these markers, known to the experts as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced Snips).

Aside from its value for bovine genetics, this map will also enhance the cow’s value as a genetic model system. Cows are evolutionary distinct from such popular model organisms as rodents and primates, and it will be interesting to compare their genetic makeup to that of humans. The strategy of Van Tassell to identify these markers can also be applied to any organisms with at least a partially sequenced genome.

Author contact:
Curtis Van Tassell (United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, USA)
Tel: +1 301 504 6501; E-mail: curt.vantassell@ars.usda.gov

Other papers from Nature Methods to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

[30] Homogeneous reporter system enables quantitative functional assessment of multiple transcription factors
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1186

***************************************************************************************************************
Items from other Nature journals to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

Nature PHYSICS (http://www.nature.com/naturephysics)

[31] Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse
DOI: 10.1038/nphys887

[32] Anisotropic behaviours of massless Dirac fermions in graphene under periodic potentials
DOI: 10.1038/nphys890

Nature MEDICINE (http://www.nature.com/naturemedicine)
[33] Noninvasive assessment of cancer response to therapy
DOI: 10.1038/nm1691

[34] Dimorphic effects of Notch signaling in bone homeostasis
DOI: 10.1038/nm1712

[35] Notch signaling maintains bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors by suppressing osteoblast differentiation
DOI: 10.1038/nm1716

Nature NEUROSCIENCE (http://www.nature.com/natureneuroscience)

[36] A single N-terminal cysteine in TRPV1 determines activation by pungent compounds from onion and garlic
DOI: 10.1038/nn2056

[37] Activation of estrogen receptor-beta regulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and improves memory
DOI: 10.1038/nn2057

[38] A molecular pathway of neurodegeneration linking alpha-synuclein to ApoE and Abeta peptides
DOI: 10.1038/nn2058

[39] Hedgehog signaling and primary cilia are required for the formation of adult neural stem cells
DOI: 10.1038/nn2059

Nature STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/natstructmolbiol)

[40] Distinct structural elements of the adaptor ClpS are required for regulating degradation by ClpAP
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1392

[41] Crystal structures of human and Staphylococcus aureus pyruvate carboxylase and molecular insights into the carboxyltransfer reaction
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1393

[42] In situ observation of protein phosphorylation by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1395

***************************************************************************************
GEOGRAPHICAL LISTING OF AUTHORS

The following list of places refers to the whereabouts of authors on the papers numbered in this release. The listing may be for an author's main affiliation, or for a place where they are working temporarily. Please see the PDF of the paper for full details.


AUSTRALIA
Canberra: 6


BELGIUM
Ghent: 21

CANADA:
Edmonton: 29
Quebec: 3

CHINA
Chengdu: 10
Shanghai: 10

FRANCE
Paris: 39
Strasbourg: 8

GERMANY
Berlin: 16, 18, 42
Bonn: 18
Cologne: 18
Erlangen: 27
Essen: 21
Freiburg: 16, 21
Goettingen: 21, 38
Hamburg: 16
Heidelberg: 16
Lubeck: 21
Munich: 27
Neuherberg: 27
Stuttgart: 31
Wurzburg: 18

ISRAEL
Jerusalem: 7

JAPAN
Nagoya: 10
Osaka: 12, 22
Suita: 20
Tokyo: 10, 27

MEXICO
Mexico City: 36

NORWAY
Kjeller: 8

SAUDI ARABIA
Makkah: 18

SOUTH KOREA
Seoul: 32

SPAIN
Bizkaia: 1
Valencia: 39

SWITZERLAND
Luzern: 21
Schwerzenbach: 21
Zurich: 13

TAIWAN
Taipei: 24

UNITED KINGDOM
Bristol: 25
Cambridge: 11, 21
Glasgow: 1
London: 11, 23

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Arizona
Tucson: 5

California
Berkeley: 9, 14, 23, 32
Davis: 20
Hayward: 29
La Jolla: 2, 23
Los Angeles: 17
Pasadena: 17
San Francisco: 23, 39
Santa Clara: 7

Colorado
Boulder: 5
Denver: 5
Silverton: 5

Connecticut
New Haven: 22

Florida
Tampa: 37

Iowa
Iowa City: 21

Maryland
Beltsville: 29
Chevy Chase: 28

Massachusetts
Boston: 15, 22, 28, 35, 42
Cambridge: 15, 40
Woods Hole: 26
Worcester: 37

Missouri
Columbia: 29

Kansas City:
St Louis: 2, 29, 35

Nebraska
Clay Center: 29

New Jersey
Monmouth Junction: 37
Murray Hill: 12
Piscataway: 19

New York
Albany: 26
Ithaca: 5
New York: 1, 19, 23, 41, 42
Rochester: 22, 34

North Carolina
Chapel Hill: 30
Research Triangle: 30

Pennsylvania
Collegeville; 37
Philadelphia: 37

University Park:
South Carolina
Cayce: 30

Tennessee
Nashville: 33

Texas
Dallas: 38
Houston: 4, 34

Utah
Salt Lake City: 5

Virginia
Manassas: 29

Washington
Seattle: 36

PRESS CONTACTS…

For media inquiries relating to embargo policy for all the Nature Research Journals:

Katherine Anderson (Nature London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4502; E-mail: k.anderson@nature.com

Ruth Francis (Senior Press Officer, Nature, London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4562; E-mail: r.francis@nature.com

For media inquiries relating to editorial content/policy for the Nature Research Journals, please contact the journals individually:

Nature Biotechnology (New York)
Peter Hare
Tel: +1 212 726 9284; E-mail: biotech@natureny.com

Nature Cell Biology (London)
Bernd Pulverer
Tel: +44 20 7843 4892; E-mail: cellbio@nature.com

Nature Chemical Biology (Boston)
Andrea Garvey
Tel: +1 617 475 9241, E-mail: chembio@boston.nature.com

Nature Genetics (New York)
Orli Bahcall
Tel: +1 212 726 9311; E-mail: natgen@natureny.com

Nature Geoscience (London)
Heike Langenberg
Tel: +44 20 7843 4042; E-mail: h.langenberg@nature.com

Nature Immunology (New York)
Laurie Dempsey
Tel: +1 212 726 9372; E-mail: immunology@natureny.com

Nature Materials (London)
Alison Stoddart
Tel: +44 20 7843 4593; E-mail: materials@nature.com

Nature Medicine (New York)
Juan Carlos Lopez
Tel: +1 212 726 9325; E-mail: medicine@natureny.com

Nature Methods (New York)
Allison Doerr
Tel: +1 212 726 9393; E-mail: methods@natureny.com

Nature Neuroscience (New York)
Sandra Aamodt (based in California)
Tel: +1 530 795 3256; E-mail: neurosci@natureny.com

Nature Photonics (Tokyo))
Oliver Graydon
Tel: +81 3 3267 8776; E-mail: o.graydon@natureasia.com

Nature Physics (London)
Alison Wright
Tel: +44 20 7843 4555; E-mail: a.wright@nature.com

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (New York)
Michelle Montoya
Tel: +1 212 726 9326; E-mail: nsmb@natureny.com

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