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Article Released Sun-26th-October-2008 19:03 GMT
Contact: Ruth Institution: Nature Publishing Group
 Purple tomatoes may keep cancer at bay

Summaries of newsworthy papers in Nature and Nature research journals also including Combating muscle fatigue Ranking geo-engineering schemes

NATURE AND THE NATURE RESEARCH JOURNALS PRESS RELEASE

For papers that will be published online on 26 October 2008

This press release is copyrighted to the Nature journals mentioned below.

This press release contains:

· Summaries of newsworthy papers:
Biotechnology: Purple tomatoes may keep cancer at bay
Nature: Combating muscle fatigue
Geoscience: Ranking geo-engineering schemes
· Mention of papers to be published at the same time with the same embargo
· Geographical listing of authors


PDFs of all the papers mentioned on this release can be found in the relevant journal’s section of http://press.nature.com. Press contacts for the Nature journals are listed at the end of this release.

PICTURES: To obtain artwork from any of the journals, you must first obtain permission from the copyright holder (if named) or author of the research paper in question (if not).

NOTE: Once a paper is published, the digital object identifier (DOI) number can be used to retrieve the abstract and full text from the journal web site (abstracts are available to everyone, full text is available only to subscribers). To do this, add the DOI to the following URL: http://dx.doi.org/ (For example, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng730). For more information about DOIs and Advance Online Publication, see http://www.nature.com/ng/aop/.

PLEASE CITE THE SPECIFIC NATURE JOURNAL AND WEBSITE AS THE SOURCE OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS. IF PUBLISHING ONLINE, PLEASE CARRY A HYPERLINK TO THE APPROPRIATE JOURNAL’S WEBSITE.


[1] Biotechnology: Purple tomatoes may keep cancer at bay

DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1506

Tomatoes engineered to have higher levels of antioxidants protect cancer-prone mutant mice from the disease. The study published online this week in Nature Biotechnology suggests that including such foods in our diet could help to promote health and wellbeing.

Anthocyanins - antioxidant pigments produced by plants - can offer protection from a range of human diseases. Cathie Martin and colleagues transfer factors from snapdragon into tomatoes to increase production of these antioxidants. The resulting fruit are deep purple in colour and contain levels of anthocyanins higher than those previously engineered in crops.

The team finds that feeding cancer-susceptible mice a diet supplemented with purple tomato powder significantly prolongs their lifespan. Human health benefits have been attributed to eating anthocyanin-rich foods, such as blackberries and blueberries. Transgenic tomatoes might be an easier way to supplement dietary intake of antioxidants.

Author contact:
Cathie Martin (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK)
Tel: +44 1603 450275; E-mail: cathie.martin@bbsrc.ac.uk


[2] Nature: Combating muscle fatigue

DOI: 10.1038/nature07414

Researchers have identified a potential cause of fatigue in patients with neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The findings, published this week in Nature, could lead to new treatments that improve the quality of life for these patients.

Patients with neuromuscular disorders experience extreme fatigue after even the mildest of exertion. Kevin Campbell and colleagues find in mice with similar disorders that this is caused by a lack of a particular molecule in the membranes of muscle cells - neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The team find a similar deficit in nNOS in tissue samples from patients with a wide range of disorders, suggesting a shared mechanism of fatigue.

In healthy muscles, nNOS signalling widens blood vessels to help them recover faster after exercise. Treating diseased mice with drugs that mimic the effects of nNOS had a similar effect, allowing the mice to regain activity after exercise much faster. The results suggest that a similar strategy could be used to treat patients.

Author contact:
Kevin Campbell (University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA)
Tel: +1 319 335 7867; E-mail: kevin-campbell@uiowa.edu


[3] Geoscience: Ranking geo-engineering schemes

DOI: 10.1038/ngeo348

Geo-engineering schemes that aim to stabilize the Earth’s climate should be ranked according to their efficacy, cost, associated risks and timeframe, argues a Commentary online in Nature Geoscience. The author suggests that, of the various schemes that have been proposed, only a few can be investigated in detail and we must choose the most promising ones.

Philip Boyd makes a case that, given the urgency of combating global warming, timescale could be used as a knock-out criterion for geo-engineering schemes. The time it takes for climate stabilization measures to take effect, and the delay in halting a scheme if undesired side effects are overwhelming, have not received sufficient attention, according to Boyd. A transparent ranking process is needed in order to choose the best schemes, and to win public support.

Author contact:
Philip Boyd (National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Dunedin, New Zealand)
Tel: +64 3 479 5249; E-mail: pboyd@alkali.otago.ac.nz


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Items from other Nature journals to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

Nature (http://www.nature.com/nature)

[4] Generation of cell polarity in plants links endocytosis, auxin distribution and cell fate decisions
DOI: 10.1038/nature07409


NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/naturebiotechnology)

[5] Activity motifs reveal principles of timing in transcriptional control of the yeast metabolic network
DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1499

[6] Protein microarrays with carbon nanotubes as multicolor Raman labels
DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1501


NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/nchembio)

[7] Reconstitution of ThiC in thiamine pyrimidine biosynthesis expands the radical SAM superfamily
DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.121

[8] A concerted mechanism for berberine bridge enzyme
DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.123


NATURE GENETICS (http://www.nature.com/naturegenetics)

[9] Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans
DOI: 10.1038/ng.248

[10] TMEM70 mutations cause isolated ATP synthase deficiency and neonatal mitochondrial encephalocardiomyopathy
DOI: 10.1038/ng.246

[11] Mutations of LRTOMT, a fusion gene with alternative reading frames, cause nonsyndromic deafness in humans
DOI: 10.1038/ng.245


NATURE GEOSCIENCE (http://www.nature.com/ngeo)

[12] The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth’s temperature to radiation changes
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo337

[13] Seismic evidence for broken oceanic crust in the 2004 Sumatra earthquake epicentral region
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo336

[14] Quaternary tectonic response to intensified glacial erosion in an orogenic wedge
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo334


NATURE IMMUNOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/natureimmunology)

[15] The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila
DOI: 10.1038/ni.1664


NATURE MATERIALS (http://www.nature.com/naturematerials)

[16] Unexpected power-law stress relaxation of entangled ring polymers
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2292

[17] Insight into silicate-glass corrosion mechanisms
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2301

[18] Hierarchical nanofabrication of microporous crystals with ordered mesoporosity
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2302

[19] Structural and magnetic phase diagram of CeFeAsO1- xFx and its relationship to high-temperature superconductivity
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2315


Nature MEDICINE (http://www.nature.com/naturemedicine)

[20] Engineering microRNA responsiveness to decrease virus pathogenicity
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1776

[21] Niemann-Pick disease type C1 is a sphingosine storage disease that causes deregulation of lysosomal calcium
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1876

[22] Opposing effects of HLA class I molecules in tuning autoreactive CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1881


NATURE METHODS (http://www.nature.com/nmeth)

[23] A non-cytotoxic DsRed variant for whole-cell labeling
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1264


NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/nnano)

[24] Detection of heating in current-carrying molecular junctions by Raman scattering
DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2008.304


Nature NEUROSCIENCE (http://www.nature.com/natureneuroscience)

[25] Distinct gating modes determine the biphasic relaxation of NMDA receptor currents
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2214

[26] GABAB receptor activation mediates frequency-dependent plasticity of developing GABAergic synapses
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2215

[27] FGF acts as a co-transmitter through Adenosine A2A receptor to regulate morphological and physiological synaptic plasticity
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2216


Nature PHYSICS (http://www.nature.com/naturephysics)

[28] Microrheology of a sticking transition
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1105

[29] Coulomb correlations and the Wigner-Mott transition
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1106

[30] Optical lattice clocks with non-interacting bosons and fermions
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1108

[31] Deterministic entanglement swapping with an ion-trap quantum computer
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1107


Nature STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/natstructmolbiol)

[32] De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1476

[33] An equivalent metal ion in one- and two-metal-ion catalysis
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1502

[34] Localization of Prp8, Brr2, Snu114 and U4/U6 proteins in the yeast tri-snRNP by electron microscopy
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1506

[35] The Janus-faced nature of the C2B domain is fundamental for synaptotagmin-1 function
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1508

[36] Structural basis for exon recognition by a group II intron
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1509


This paper was published electronically on Nature Biotechnology's website on 17 October

[37] Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes
DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1503


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GEOGRAPHICAL LISTING OF AUTHORS

The following list of places refers to the whereabouts of authors on the papers numbered in this release. The listing may be for an author's main affiliation, or for a place where they are working temporarily. Please see the PDF of the paper for full details.

ARGENTINA
San Martin: 29

AUSTRALIA
Perth: 13

AUSTRIA
Graz: 8
Innsbruck: 31
Salzburg: 10

BELGIUM
Brussels: 32
Ghent: 4

CHINA
Beijing: 6, 19
Shanghai: 26

CZECH REPUBLIC
Prague: 10

DENMARK
Aarhus: 22
Ballerup: 9
Copenhagen: 9

FINLAND
Helsinki: 8

FRANCE
Bagnols-sur-Ceze: 17
Gif-sur-Yvette: 17
Lyon: 15
Palaiseau: 17
Paris: 13, 15
Strasbourg: 15

GERMANY
Berlin: 10
Dresden: 16
Erlangen: 31
Gatersleben: 1
Goettingen: 34
Hamburg: 22
Heidelberg: 15
Julich: 16

GREECE
Crete: 16

INDIA
Mumbai: 28

INDONESIA
Jakarta: 13

ISRAEL
Jerusalem: 32
Tel Aviv: 24

ITALY
Brescia: 37
Milan: 1

JAPAN
Kyoto: 32
Saitama: 4, 30
Tokyo: 4, 30

MALAYSIA
Kuala-Lumpur: 13

NETHERLANDS
Geleen: 16
Nijmegen: 11
Utrecht: 4, 11, 34
Wageningen: 1

NEW ZEALAND
Dunedin: 3

PAKISTAN
Lahore: 11

SOUTH KOREA
Pohang: 16
Suwon: 16

SPAIN
Barcelona: 37

SWITZERLAND
Epalinges: 15
Lausanne: 4
Zurich: 12

TUNISIA
Sfax: 11

TURKEY
Trabzon: 11

UNITED KINGDOM
Cambridge: 13
Edinburgh: 12
Leicester: 21
Norwich: 1
Oxford: 21, 22

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
California
Berkeley: 26
La Jolla: 4, 37
Mountain View: 5
San Francisco: 5
Santa Barbara: 16
Stanford: 5, 6
Connecticut
New Haven: 25, 27, 36
Florida
Gainesville: 14
Tallahassee: 29
Illinois
Argonne: 36
Chicago: 23, 27
DeKalb: 14
Indiana
Indianapolis: 23
West Lafayette: 14
Iowa
Iowa City: 2
Maine
Orono: 14
Maryland
Bethesda: 33
Chevy Chase: 36
College Park: 19, 31
Gaithersburg: 19
Rockville: 11
Massachusetts
Cambridge: 5
Worcester: 5
Michigan
Ann Arbor: 2
Minnesota
Minneapolis: 18
Rochester: 20
Missouri
St Louis: 8
New Jersey
Piscataway: 29
New York
Buffalo: 25
Ithaca: 7
New York: 21, 27
North Carolina
Chapel Hill: 16
Pennsylvania
University Park: 7
Tennessee
Knoxville: 19
Oak Ridge: 19
Texas
Austin: 14
Dallas: 35
El Paso: 14
Houston: 35
Utah
Salt Lake City: 9
Virginia
Blacksburg: 14
Washington
Seattle: 2


PRESS CONTACTS

For media inquiries relating to embargo policy for all the Nature Research Journals:

Rachel Twinn (Nature London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4658; E-mail: r.twinn@nature.com

Katherine Anderson (Nature New York)
Tel: +1 212 726 9231; E-mail: k.anderson@natureny.com

Ruth Francis (Head of Press, Nature, London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4562; E-mail: r.francis@nature.com


For media inquiries relating to editorial content/policy for the Nature Research Journals, please contact the journals individually:

Nature Biotechnology (New York)
Peter Hare
Tel: +1 212 726 9284; E-mail: biotech@natureny.com

Nature Chemical Biology (Boston)
Andrea Garvey
Tel: +1 617 475 9241, E-mail: chembio@boston.nature.com

Nature Genetics (New York)
Orli Bahcall
Tel: +1 212 726 9311; E-mail: natgen@natureny.com

Nature Geoscience (London)
Heike Langenberg
Tel: +44 20 7843 4042; E-mail: h.langenberg@nature.com

Nature Immunology (New York)
Laurie Dempsey
Tel: +1 212 726 9372; E-mail: immunology@natureny.com

Nature Materials (London)
Alison Stoddart
Tel: +44 20 7843 4593; E-mail: materials@nature.com

Nature Medicine (New York)
Juan Carlos Lopez
Tel: +1 212 726 9325; E-mail: medicine@natureny.com

Nature Methods (New York)
Hugh Ash
Tel: +1 212 726 9627; E-mail: methods@natureny.com

Nature Nanotechnology (London)
Peter Rodgers
Tel: +44 20 7014 4019; Email: p.rodgers@nature.com

Nature Neuroscience (New York)
Kalyani Narasimhan
Tel: +1 212 726 9319; E-mail: neurosci@natureny.com

Nature Physics (London)
Alison Wright
Tel: +44 20 7843 4555; E-mail: a.wright@nature.com

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (New York)
Michelle Montoya
Tel: +1 212 726 9326; E-mail: nsmb@natureny.com


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Keywords associated to this article: Tomatoes, Anthocyanins, cancer, muscle fatigue, geo-engineering, climate
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