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Article Released Sun-14th-June-2009 20:39 GMT
Contact: Ruth Institution: Nature Publishing Group
 H1N1 influenza: Where are we at?

Summaries of newsworthy papers Nanomaterials in biological systems, How nanotubes suppress the immune function?, Alzheimer’s assemblies identified, A new vision for eye condition, Protein translation factor causes breast cancer, Sperm DNA packaging, Genome screens suggest clues to multiple sclerosis risk

NATURE AND THE NATURE RESEARCH JOURNALS PRESS RELEASE

For papers that will be published online on 14 June 2009

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Wire services’ stories must always carry the embargo time at the head of each item, and may not be sent out more than 24 hours before that time.

Solely for the purpose of soliciting informed comment on Nature journal papers, you may show relevant parts of this document, and the papers to which it refers, to independent specialists – but you must ensure in advance that they understand and accept Nature’s embargo conditions.

This press release contains:

· Summaries of newsworthy papers:

Materials: Nanomaterials in biological systems

Nanotechnology: How nanotubes suppress the immune function?

Chemistry: Alzheimer’s assemblies identified

Nature: A new vision for eye condition

Cell Biology: Protein translation factor causes breast cancer

Nature: H1N1 influenza: Where are we at?

Nature: Sperm DNA packaging

Genetics: Genome screens suggest clues to multiple sclerosis risk

Geoscience: Enhanced polar mercury deposition during glacial intervals

Neuroscience: Play it again

And finally… Physics: Living cells sorted

· Mention of papers to be published at the same time with the same embargo

· Geographical listing of authors

PDFs of all the papers mentioned on this release can be found in the relevant journal’s section of http://press.nature.com. Press contacts for the Nature journals are listed at the end of this release.

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[1] Materials: Nanomaterials in biological systems
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2442

State-of-the-art understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins, cells, DNA and other biological surfaces is reviewed online this week in Nature Materials. The review provides an analysis of how these interactions determine biocompatibility and set a framework for directing future research that combines nanotechnology with biological systems.

Nanomaterials are increasingly coming into contact with people and the environment, and understanding how they interact with biological systems is essential to ensure their safe use. Andre Nel and colleagues explain how the size, shape and structure of both the nanomaterial and biological surfaces influence the physicochemical reactions at an interface that is constantly changing. Focusing on nanoparticles in tissue culture and other biological media, the authors discuss the effects of the fundamental forces on processes such as cellular uptake.

Author contact:
Andre Nel (University of California at Los Angeles, CA, USA)
Tel: +1 310 825 3718; E-mail: ANel@mednet.ucla.edu


[2] Nanotechnology: How nanotubes suppress the immune function?
DOI: 10.1038/nnano.151

Inhalation of carbon nanotubes activates cellular signals in the lung, which in turn activate signals in the spleen to suppress the immune function of mice. This finding, published online in Nature Nanotechnology this week, provides an insight into the immune-system response of mice exposed to nanotubes, and highlights health concerns for those working with these materials.

Jacob McDonald and colleagues report that activation and release of a signalling molecule from the lung after inhalation of low levels of nanotubes has a direct effect on the immune function of T cells — a class of white blood cells — in the spleen. The signalling molecule from the lung activates certain enzymes in the spleen that induce the release of other molecules that can cause T-cell dysfunction. Across the range of nanotube concentrations examined in this study, only mice exposed to 1 mg m-3 showed suppressed immune function for up to 30 days.

Because accurate levels of occupational exposures remain unknown, it should be noted that rough estimates indicate that if humans are exposed to 1 mg m-3 nanotubes in a similar setup, the burden on the lungs of humans would be approximately 7.5 times less than the burden experienced by the mice in this study. However, the authors suggest that with increasing production of carbon nanotubes and possible occupational exposures that will persist for much longer than the duration of this study, immune dysfunction may be a concern for those working in the industry.

Author contact:
Jacob McDonald (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA)
Tel: +1 505 348 9455; Email: jmcdonal@lrri.org

Alison Elder (University of Rochester, New York, NY, USA) News & Views author
Tel: +1 585 275 2324; Email: Alison_elder@urmc.rochester.edu


[3] Chemistry: Alzheimer’s assemblies identified
DOI: 10.1038/nchem.247

Assemblies of twelve units of the protein amyloid-beta42 are a probable key neurotoxic agent in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study online in Nature Chemistry this week. The identification of such a key toxic species could pave the way for treatments that specifically target the disease in its early stages of development.

Plaques, formed from large assemblies of amyloid-beta proteins, are known to form as a result of Alzheimer’s disease, but recent evidence suggests that the disease symptoms are caused by small assemblies — oligomers — of the protein. However, a variety of investigations into how these oligomers arise have provided conflicting results.

Michael Bowers and co-workers used a technique called electrospray-ionization ion-mobility mass spectrometry to study the mixture of oligomers formed by amyloid-beta42 and some closely related proteins that do not result in disease. The technique allowed the researchers to study both the mass and the geometry of oligomers formed. Although all the proteins studied formed these small assemblies, only amyloid-beta42 went on to form one that contained twelve units.

In an accompanying News & Views article, David Clemmer and Stephen Valentine say ‘One can imagine using the insight gained here to design interventions that are designed to arrest oligomer growth at a specific size.’

Author contact:
Michael Bowers (University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA)
Tel: +1 805 893 2893; E-mail: bowers@chem.ucsb.edu

David Clemmer (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA) News & Views author
Tel: +1 812 855 8259; E-mail: clemmer@indiana.edu


[4] Nature: A new vision for eye condition
DOI: 10.1038/nature08151

A potential detection marker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is reported this week in Nature. It’s hoped that the finding might lead to new therapies to slow the vision loss associated with the disease.

AMD is a major cause of blindness worldwide and the prevalence is expected to double in the next decade. In many cases, loss of sight occurs when new blood vessels grow up abnormally from behind the retina, which can cause it to detach. Using a mouse model of AMD, Jayakrishna Ambati and colleagues show that the receptor CCR3 has a role in promoting the aberrant blood vessel growth and that blocking it slows disease. In fact, blocking CCR3 was even more effective than the clinically approved treatment for AMD — blocking VEGF-A — and was associated with less toxicity.

The team also looked at patient samples and found that whereas CCR3 was expressed in patients with AMD, it was notably absent from healthy controls. Together the findings suggest that CCR3 could be a useful diagnostic tool and a potentially exciting therapeutic target.

Author contact:
Jayakrishna Ambati (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA)
Tel: +1 859 323 0686; E-mail: jamba2@email.uky.edu


[5] Cell Biology: Protein translation factor causes breast cancer
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1900

Factors that cause a particularly aggressive form of breast cancer are reported online this week in Nature Cell Biology. An over-abundance of a regulator of protein expression in patients with inflammatory breast cancer induces factors that make cells adhesive. These factors then transform cells into metastatic tumours. This finding could aid in the development of a targeted therapy that can stop the spread of this type of cancer.

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer due to its rapid spread. Robert Schneider and colleagues show that IBC is characterized by the overexpression of a protein called eIF4GI. They found that, while this factor did not affect overall protein production, it did lead to increased levels of the cell adhesion regulators E-cadherin and p120 catenin, which allow cancers cells to clump together, rather than attaching to the surrounding tissue. These clumps of cancer cells can enter the circulation and spread throughout the body in a process called passive metastasis, which accounts for the lethality of IBC. Silencing eIF4GI, E-cadherin or p120 catenin all impair tumour growth and invasion in a mouse model for the cancer and the authors show that the role of eIF4GI in breast cancer depends on the de-regulation of p120 catenin.

Pinpointing the molecular causes of IBC metastization raises the hope that targeted therapeutic intervention can stop the spread of this particularly aggressive form of breast cancer.

Author contact:
Robert Schneider (New York University School of Medicine, NY, USA)
Tel: +1 212 263 6006; E-mail: robert.schneider@nyumc.org


[6] Nature: H1N1 influenza: Where are we at?
DOI: 10.1038/nature08157

A review article in Nature this week takes a long hard look at the emergence and pandemic potential of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus currently at pandemic alert phase 5. The authors conclude that understanding interspecies and human-to-human transmission, and how the viruses reassort are central for us to cope better with future pandemics.

Yoshihiro Kawaoka and colleagues review the literature on influenza structure, historical pandemics from Spanish influenza in 1918 to Russian influenza in 1977, the emergence in the late 1990s of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza, referred to familiarly as ‘Avian influenza’, and the current concern, swine-origin H1N1. The global community is not well prepared for a pandemic, with insufficient antiviral drug stockpiles and slow production of vaccines. They summarise research into new drugs and vaccines, but conclude that although much has been learned we still need to figure out what determines interspecies transmission, reassortment and human-to-human transmission. These factors accounted for past pandemics and will be critical in the emergence of new pandemic viruses.

Author contact:
Yoshihiro Kawaoka (University of Tokyo, Japan)
Tel: +81 3 5449 5310; E-mail: kawaokay@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


[7] Nature: Sperm DNA packaging
DOI: 10.1038/nature08162

A paper in Nature provides insights into how DNA in sperm is packaged during development, which could reflect the role the paternal genome has in the embryo.

During sperm development, the proteins that are used to package DNA, known as histones, are mostly exchanged for protamines — small basic proteins that form tightly packed DNA structures important for normal sperm function. Whether the rare histones that are not exchanged have any function or are simply randomly distributed remnants has until now been unclear. Bradley Cairns and colleagues used high-resolution genomic approaches to map the histones retained in mature human sperm. Histones are found to be significantly enriched at developmentally important genes and to have distinctive patterns of modification. Therefore, these histones might have been retained for a reason, to perform specific functions in the embryo.

Author contact:
Bradley Cairns (University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA)
Tel: +1 801 585 1822; E-mail: brad.cairns@hci.utah.edu


[8] & [9] Genetics: Genome screens suggest clues to multiple sclerosis risk
DOI: 10.1038/ng.401
DOI: 10.1038/ng.396

Several common gene variants point to ways in which individuals vary in their susceptibility to the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), according to two studies, published online in this week’s Nature Genetics.

MS affects predominantly young adults of European ancestry, causing recurrent or progressive impairment of nerve function due to an attack by the immune system on the myelin protein sheaths that insulate the nerves. The disease is thought to occur after the immune system of a genetically susceptible person is activated by an environmental trigger, which might be a viral infection.

The research by teams led by Philip De Jager and Justin Paul Rubio points to differences between individuals in their responses to the signaling molecules of the immune system called interferons.

Author contacts:
Philip De Jager (Brigham and Womens’ Hospital, Harvard University)
Tel: +1 617 525 4529; E-mail: pdejager@rics.bwh.harvard.edu Author paper [8]

Justin Paul Rubio (The Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia)
Tel: +61 3 8344 6386; E-mail: justin.rubio@florey.edu.au Author paper [9]


[10] Geoscience: Enhanced polar mercury deposition during glacial intervals
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo549

Far more atmospheric mercury was deposited on the surface of Antarctic ice during the coldest glacial periods than during warmer times, according to a study online in Nature Geoscience. This suggests that, like today, the polar regions were an important sink for atmospheric mercury.

Paolo Gabrielli and colleagues used state-of-the-art analytical techniques to measure mercury concentrations in ice from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core. Their reconstruction covered the past 670,000 years, and found that concentrations were highest during the coldest and dustiest intervals. They suggest that the colder temperatures enhanced reactions between dust, airborne sea salts and atmospheric mercury, resulting in the transport of mercury to the snow below.

Author contact:
Paolo Gabrielli (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA)
Tel: +1 614 292 6664; E-mail: gabrielli.1@osu.edu


[11] Neuroscience: Play it again
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2344

The neural activity patterns of past experiences are replayed during brief pauses in waking behaviour, suggesting a role for waking replay in memory consolidation and retrieval. The paper published online this week in Nature Neuroscience differs from previous theories that suggest that only replay during sleep is important for memory.

Loren Frank and Mattias Karlsson recorded activity from groups of neurons in the hippocampus – a brain structure important for memory formation - while rats were running through two different environments, and while they were resting in a chamber between their bouts of activity. They found that replay of neuronal activity that occurred in each environment was just as likely to occur while the animal was in the other environment, or even in the rest box. This suggests that replay activity in the hippocampus of rats that are awake can be independent of incoming sensory information.

Replay during waking behaviour has been observed before, but always associated with the current environment. This is the first demonstration that it could occur independently, linking it to memory processing.

Author contacts:
Loren Frank (University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA)
Tel: +1 415 502 6317; E-mail: loren@phy.ucsf.edu

Matthias Karlsson (University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA)
Tel: +1 415 476 4949; E-mail: mkarlsso@phy.ucsf.edu


[12] And finally… Physics: Living cells sorted
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1306

A method that enables a collection of cells of different types to be easily sorted is reported online this week in Nature Physics. The paper shows that species-dependent motion of living cells can allow cells to be sorted by directing them into different reservoirs of a microfluidic device. This could ultimately enable new methods for filtering cancer cells from healthy ones.

Bartosz Grzybowski and colleagues based their work on the ‘ratchet effect’: when the walls of a channel have an asymmetric structure, such as that of a saw-tooth, it can force the cells to move preferentially in one direction. The team found that for certain channel structures, the direction of this preferential motion depends on the type of cell moving through a channel. They use this result to sort mixtures of two different types of cells — chosen from healthy rat cells, mouse skin cancer cells and human breast cancer cells — into two different reservoirs.

This effect is believed to be caused by differences in structure and mechanical properties of different cells — differences that often occur between diseased cells and healthy ones.

Author contact:
Bartosz Grzybowski (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA)
Tel: +1 847 491 3024; Email: grzybor@northwestern.edu

***************************************************************************************************************
Items from other Nature journals to be published online at the same time and with the same embargo:

Nature (http://www.nature.com/nature)

[13] CD14 regulates the dendritic cell life cycle after LPS exposure through NFAT activation
DOI: 10.1038/nature08118

NATURE CELL BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/naturecellbiology)

[14] Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1886

[15] SDPR induces membrane curvature and functions in the formation of caveolae
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1887

[16] Chromosome congression in the absence of kinetochore fibres
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1890

[17] Lateral microtubule bundles promote chromosome alignment during acentrosomal oocyte meiosis
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1891

[18] BRIT1/MCPH1 links chromatin remodelling to DNA damage response
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1895

[19] The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainyhead and epidermal wound healing in Drosophila
DOI: 10.1038/ncb1898

NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/nchembio)

[20] Designer enzymes for glycosphingolipid synthesis by directed evolution
DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.191

NATURE CHEMISTRY (http://www.nature.com/nchem)

[21] Coordination chemistry at carbon
DOI: 10.1038/nchem.248

[22] Designer magnetic superatoms
DOI: 10.1038/nchem.249

NATURE GENETICS (http://www.nature.com/naturegenetics)

[23] Mutations involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome implicate SAMHD1 as regulator of the innate immune response
DOI: 10.1038/ng.373

[24] RNASET2-deficient cystic leukoencephalopathy resembles congenital cytomegalovirus brain infection
DOI: 10.1038/ng.398

NATURE GEOSCIENCE (http://www.nature.com/ngeo)

[25] Iron isotope fractionation in the Earth’s lower mantle
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo546

[26] Identifying the causes of sea-level change
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo544

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/natureimmunology)

[27] Acid sphingomyelinase is a key regulator of cytotoxic granule secretion by primary T lymphocytes
DOI: 10.1038/ni.1757

NATURE MATERIALS (http://www.nature.com/naturematerials)

[28] Step-by-step rotation of a molecule-gear mounted on an atomic-scale axis
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2467

[29] Switchable self-protected attractions in DNA-functionalized colloids
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2471

[30] Kondo conductance in an atomic nanocontact from first principles
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2476

[31] Inhomogeneous flow and fracture of glassy materials
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2468

[32] Electronic and magnetic phase diagram of ß-Fe1.01Se with superconductivity at 36.7 K under pressure
DOI: 10.1038/nmat2491

Nature MEDICINE (http://www.nature.com/naturemedicine)

[33] CD4 downregulation by memory CD4+ T cells in vivo renders African green monkeys resistant to progressive SIVagm infection
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1970

[34] A selective inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 blocks cytokine production and attenuates progression of experimental arthritis
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1978

[35] Neutralizing antibodies generated during natural HIV-1 infection: good news for an HIV-1 vaccine?
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1949

[36] Wnt signaling arrests effector T cell differentiation and generates CD8+ memory stem cells
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1982

NATURE METHODS (http://www.nature.com/nmeth)

[37] Quantitative analysis of gene expression in a single cell by qPCR
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1338

[38] In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1339

[39] Mapping the structure and conformational movements of proteins with transition metal ion FRET
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1341

[40] Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1342

Nature NEUROSCIENCE (http://www.nature.com/natureneuroscience)

[41] Notch controls embryonic Schwann cell differentiation, postnatal myelination and adult plasticity
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2323

[42] Adult birdsong is actively maintained by error correction
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2336

[43] Adenosine A2A receptor mediates microglial process retraction
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2341

[44] Twin-spot MARCM to reveal the developmental origin and identity of neurons
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2345

[45] Pathogenic huntingtin inhibits fast axonal transport by activating JNK3 and phosphorylating kinesin
DOI: 10.1038/nn.2346

Nature PHYSICS (http://www.nature.com/naturephysics)

[46] Paradigm of the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect for femtosecond magnetism
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1315

[47] Observation of electric-field-induced Cs Rydberg atom macrodimers
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1307

[48] Self-organized helical equilibria as a new paradigm for ohmically heated fusion plasmas
DOI: 10.1038/nphys1308

Nature STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (http://www.nature.com/natstructmolbiol)

[49] Localized thermodynamic coupling between hydrogen bonding and microenvironment polarity substantially stabilizes proteins
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1610

[50] The Hsp82 molecular chaperone promotes a switch between unextendable and extendable telomere states
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1616

[51] Structural basis for ESCRT-III protein autoinhibition
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1621

[52] Structural evidence for consecutive Hel308-like modules in the spliceosomal ATPase Brr2
DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.1625

***************************************************************************************************************

***The following paper was published electronically on Nature Medicine's website on 05 June at 2000 London time / 1500 US Eastern time. This paper is therefore no longer under embargo, though the rest of the articles on this release remain under embargo until 14 June at 1800 London time / 1300 US Eastern time ***

[53] GOAT links dietary lipids with the endocrine control of energy balance
DOI: 10.1038/nm.1997

**************************************************************************************************************
GEOGRAPHICAL LISTING OF AUTHORS

The following list of places refers to the whereabouts of authors on the papers numbered in this release. The listing may be for an author's main affiliation, or for a place where they are working temporarily. Please see the PDF of the paper for full details.

AUSTRALIA
Adelaide: 9
Box Hill: 9
Brisbane: 9
Geelong: 9
Hobart: 9
Parkville: 9, 23
Penrith: 9
Melbourne: 9
Nedlands: 9
Newcastle: 9
Southport: 9
Westmead: 9

BELGIUM
Brussels: 23
Leuven: 23
Tervuren: 10
Wilrijk: 10

BRAZIL
Sao Paulo: 23

CANADA:
Ottawa: 26
Vancouver: 20, 23

CZECH REPUBLIC
Prague: 48

FINLAND
Turku: 45

FRANCE
Bicetre: 23
Grenoble: 10
Marseille: 48
Paris: 10, 23, 24
St Martin d’Heres: 10
Toulouse: 28

GERMANY
Amberg: 24
Berlin: 24
Bonn: 24
Bremen: 1
Cologne: 24, 27
Freiburg: 27
Garching: 48
Goettingen: 23, 24
Hamburg-Eppendorf: 24:
Heidelberg: 27
Jena: 38
Kaiserslautern: 46
Konstanz: 34
Lubeck: 4
Mainz: 32
Mulheim: 21
Paderborn: 32
Potsdam-Rehbrucke: 53

INDIA
Allahabad: 22

IRELAND
Dublin: 9

ISRAEL
Haifa: 23
Petach-Tikva: 23

ITALY
Cassino: 48
Milan: 13, 41
Naples: 30, 48
Padova: 48
Pavia: 23
Rome: 23
Siena: 10
Trieste: 30
Venice: 10

JAPAN
Kanazawa: 45
Nagoya: 4
Saitama: 6
Tokyo: 6, 31, 37

MALTA
Tal-Qroqq: 23

NETHERLANDS
Amsterdam: 8, 14, 19, 27
Nijmegen: 18, 23
Rotterdam: 41
Wageningen: 14

NEW ZEALAND
Auckland: 9
Christchurch: 9
Dunedin: 9
Otago: 9

NORWAY
Kjeller:
Oslo: 23

POLAND
Warsaw: 32

RUSSIA
Moscow: 32
Voronezh: 30

SINGAPORE
Singapore: 13, 28

SOUTH AFRICA
Johannesburg: 35

SOUTH KOREA
Incheon: 10

SPAIN
Barcelona: 23
Seville: 24
Zaragoza: 27

SWEDEN
Stockholm: 19, 48

SWITZERLAND
Basel: 8
Epalinges: 41
Kreuzlingen: 34
Lugano: 30

TAIWAN
Miaoli County: 44

UNITED KINGDOM
Birmingham: 23
Bradford: 23
Bristol: 8
Cambridge: 3, 8, 15, 40
Edinburgh: 18
Harrow: 23
Isle of Man: 23
Leeds: 10, 23
Liverpool: 23, 26
London: 8, 41
Manchester: 23
Oxford: 9, 48
Plymouth: 26, 41

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

California
Berkeley: 14, 52
Davis: 25, 40
La Jolla: 19, 35, 49
Los Angeles: 1, 3
San Francisco: 8, 11, 34, 42, 52
Santa Barbara: 3
Stanford: 14, 17, 38

Colorado
Aurora: 52

Connecticut
Farmington: 45

District of Columbia
Washington: 5, 22, 23

Florida
Miami: 8

Georgia
Atlanta: 43

Illinois
Chicago: 8, 45
Evanston: 12
Urbana: 50

Indiana
Bloomington: 16
Indianapolis: 53
Terre Haute: 46

Kentucky
Lexington: 4

Louisiana
New Orleans: 33

Maryland
Bethesda: 24, 33, 35, 36
Gaithersburg: 4

Massachusetts
Boston: 4, 8, 40, 41
Cambridge: 8, 39, 40
Woods Hole: 45
Worcester: 3, 44

Missouri
St Louis: 8, 46

New Jersey
Princeton: 32, 48

New Mexico
Albuquerque: 2

New York
Albany: 16
Ithaca: 52
New York: 1, 5, 29

North Carolina
Chapel Hill: 4

Ohio
Cincinnati: 4, 53
Columbus: 10

Oklahoma
Norman: 47

Oregon
Hillsboro: 1
Portland: 4, 45

Pennsylvania
Doylestown: 1
University Park: 1

Tennessee
Nashville: 8

Texas
Houston: 18, 23

Utah
Salt Lake City: 4, 7, 51

Virginia
Ashburn: 44
Richmond: 22

Washington
Seattle: 23, 35, 39

West Virginia
Morgantown: 1

Wisconsin
Madison: 6, 48

PRESS CONTACTS…

For media inquiries relating to embargo policy for all the Nature Research Journals:

Rachel Twinn (Nature London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4658; E-mail: r.twinn@nature.com

Neda Afsarmanesh (Nature New York)
Tel: +1 212 726 9231; E-mail: N.Afsarmanesh@natureny.com

Ruth Francis (Head of Press, Nature, London)
Tel: +44 20 7843 4562; E-mail: r.francis@nature.com

For media inquiries relating to editorial content/policy for the Nature Research Journals, please contact the journals individually:

Nature Biotechnology (New York)
Craig Mak
Tel: +1 212 726 9284; E-mail: biotech@natureny.com

Nature Cell Biology (London)
Bernd Pulverer
Tel: +44 20 7843 4892; E-mail: cellbio@nature.com

Nature Chemical Biology (Boston)
Andrea Garvey
Tel: +1 617 475 9241, E-mail: chembio@boston.nature.com

Nature Chemistry (London)
Stuart Cantrill
Tel: +44 20 7014 4018; E-mail: s.cantrill@nature.com

Nature Genetics (New York)
Myles Axton
Tel: +1 212 726 9324; E-mail: natgen@natureny.com

Nature Geoscience (London)
Heike Langenberg
Tel: +44 20 7843 4042; E-mail: h.langenberg@nature.com

Nature Immunology (New York)
Laurie Dempsey
Tel: +1 212 726 9372; E-mail: immunology@natureny.com

Nature Materials (London)
Vincent Dusastre
Tel: +44 20 7843 4531; E-mail: materials@nature.com

Nature Medicine (New York)
Juan Carlos Lopez
Tel: +1 212 726 9325; E-mail: medicine@natureny.com

Nature Methods (New York)
Hugh Ash
Tel: +1 212 726 9627; E-mail: methods@natureny.com

Nature Nanotechnology (London)
Peter Rodgers
Tel: +44 20 7014 4019; Email: p.rodgers@nature.com

Nature Neuroscience (New York)
Kalyani Narasimhan
Tel: +1 212 726 9319; E-mail: neurosci@natureny.com

Nature Physics (London)
Alison Wright
Tel: +44 20 7843 4555; E-mail: a.wright@nature.com

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (New York)
Michelle Montoya
Tel: +1 212 726 9326; E-mail: nsmb@natureny.com

About Nature Publishing Group (NPG):

Nature Publishing Group is a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd, dedicated to serving the academic and professional scientific and medical communities. NPG’s flagship title, Nature, was first published in 1869. Other publications include Nature research journals, Nature Reviews, Nature Clinical Practice and a range of prestigious academic journals including society-owned publications. NPG also provides news content through Nature News. Scientific career information and free job postings are offered on Naturejobs.

NPG is a global company with principal offices in London, New York and Tokyo and offices in Basingstoke, Boston, Buenos Aires, Delhi, Hong Kong, Madrid, Melbourne, Munich, Paris, San Francisco, Seoul and Washington DC. For more information, please go to www.nature.com

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Nature and Nature Research Journals

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